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Did you know that the water running from your tap isn’t technically ‘new’? Each drop is as old as the earth itself and could even have been sipped by someone else before you. Yep, your glass could be filled with water that Cleopatra once drank two thousand years ago. Pretty amazing, right?

This is because the earth has a finite water supply that continually cycles from the ground to the sky and down again, as rain or snow. These recycled droplets fill our lakes, rivers, and streams as surface water and seep into the earth as groundwater. Whether through wells, springs, or our local water company, we then pipe this water into our homes.

As water travels through our natural and manmade waterways or into the earth’s underground aquifers, it is naturally purified and fortified with minerals. But now more than ever, it also picks up chemicals, heavy metals, and pathogens along its journey. From manufacturing pollution and pesticides to aging pipes and faucets, there are countless ways our water can become contaminated.

Our municipal water companies are meant to filter these contaminants before they reach our home but for a number of reasons, they don’t catch everything. And sometimes they miss a lot.

Water Pollution from a Factory

Also read: Easy Solutions To Test Your Home’s Tap Water For Contaminants

You can’t control what happens to your water before it reaches your home, but once it hits your pipes, you have options. So many options, in fact, that it can feel pretty overwhelming. Let’s simplify things a bit, shall we?

Know Your Filters

The first thing you should know is that each water purification system has specific contaminants it can or cannot filter, so it’s sometimes necessary to make a tradeoff. Plus, if you don’t test the tap water in your home to see which contaminants are (or are not) an issue, how will you know which filter you need?

In this article, we’ll summarize the more popular choices in the easiest way possible, so you can spot your solution more quickly. Once you start shopping, you’ll notice that quality filtering systems will often combine 2 or more purification technologies into a single unit, so you can capture a wider range of pollutants.

Here’s what we’ll cover:

    1. Reverse Osmosis
    2. Activated Carbon
    3. Water Softeners
    4. UV Disinfection
    5. A Note on Berkey Water Filters

1. Reverse Osmosis (RO)

What it removesReverse osmosis (RO) systems remove almost everything: bacteria/microorganisms, arsenic, fluoride, hexavalent chromium, nitrates, some pharmaceuticals, and perchlorate. In fact, RO filtration is so comprehensive that ALL minerals are removed, including beneficial minerals. For this reason, RO systems will often include a module that adds back calcium, magnesium, and (sometimes) other minerals. To fully replace the natural minerals that RO removes, users will often supplement with drops of seawater.

What it does not remove: Reverse osmosis systems (on their own) do not remove chlorine, trihalomethanes, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Most RO systems will address this deficiency by adding carbon and/or ceramic filters.

Where/how it’s used: RO filtration systems are either fitted to individual taps (usually the kitchen sink) or plumbed into the entire house through the mainline.

Relative cost: While RO units are not prohibitively expensive, hiring a plumber to install them can be. They can also add quite a bit to your water bill, as they are extremely wasteful, requiring roughly 20 times more water than they produce. So while RO units can be installed as whole-house filtration, it’s best to install them directly under the sink for cooking and drinking only and not for showering, laundry, or toilet flushing.

2. Activated Carbon

There are two types of activated carbon water filters: granulated carbon (less effective) and carbon block (more effective).

What they remove: The efficacy of carbon systems varies greatly. Some (typically the granulated carbon) only remove chlorine and are meant solely to improve taste and odor. Others (typically the carbon block) also remove solvents, pesticides, VOCs, mercury, lead, asbestos, some radioactive contaminants, large parasites, and some pharmaceuticals.

What it does not remove: Carbon filters do not remove bacteria, asbestos, arsenic, chromium, fluoride, perchlorates, heavy metals, and some radioactive compounds.

Where/how it’s used: You’ll usually find granulated carbon used in water pitchers, sink & shower faucets, refrigerator taps, sports bottles. By contrast, the carbon blocks may be plumbed into the mainline or to individual taps. They are also sold as separate countertop units.

Relative cost: Initially, carbon filtering solutions are low cost. But replacing the filters can add up over time.

3. Water Softeners

(Also known as deionization or ion exchange)

What it removesWater softening systems remove barium, radium, mineral salts (that can build up in pipes and fixtures), and other electrically charged molecules (ions).

NOTE: The water softening process uses sodium to replace minerals, such as calcium and magnesium. As a result, water softeners are not recommended for those seeking to lower their sodium intake. They are also not advised for watering plants and gardens.

What it does not remove: Water softening systems do not remove microorganisms, VOCs, pharmaceuticals, and most other contaminants

Where/how it’s used: Water softening systems are typically plumbed into the mainline for use throughout the house.

Relative cost: They are relatively low-cost to purchase, install and maintain.

4. UV Water Disinfection

What it removes: Disinfecting your water with ultraviolet light is more effective than chlorine for a broader range of unhealthy microorganisms and can reduce up to 99% of waterborne pathogens like e. Coli, giardia, and cryptosporidium. The process is energy-efficient, as it is roughly equivalent to using a 40-watt lightbulb. Also, the purification process from UV light does not negatively affect the taste, color, or smell of your water. UV disinfection systems are great for homes that source their water from wells.

What it does not remove: UV light is often paired with water softening and/or carbon systems to help remove sediment, chlorine, pesticides, and other unwanted contaminants.

Where/how it’s used: These are commonly found as whole-house solutions.

Relative cost: UV water disinfection systems range from moderately to very expensive.

Good to Know

The quality of water filters can vary widely, so be sure to check the brand’s website or packaging to ensure it has been independently tested and certified by a reputable agency (such as NSF or the Water Quality Association) to remove the contaminants that it claims it does.

Also, read the labels closely, as the words “NSF certified” alone only tell you that the filter is certified for something. But it’s up to you to read the fine print to see what exactly the filter is certified to remove.
For example, are they only certified for removing chlorine? Or does the certification cover everything they list on the front of the box? You have to check.

A Note On Berkey Water Filters

I’ve owned a Berkey Water System for ages and the water really does taste better than any filtered water I’ve tried. In researching this article, I also found that both their shower and drinking water filters are popular among folks who suffer from extreme chemical sensitivities, as they tend to do a great job in curbing the adverse reactions these folks were experiencing from the contaminants in their tap water.

However, something bugged me when I was researching Berkey and my skepticism was later validated by New York Times journalist, Dan Koeppel, who recommended I read this Wirecutter article. I’m thankful he brought it to my attention.

What’s in a Berkey Filter?

I spent a considerable amount of time trying to find information regarding exactly what makes up Berkey’s filters, but all I could dig up was that they were made from “6 different filtering elements”. Which six? No idea. And Wirecutter couldn’t find the info either though this should be readily available on their website. I’m a stickler for transparency, yet I almost gave Berkey a pass, simply because I’ve been a customer for so long and because they’re so beloved by the chemically sensitive.

By the way, I also didn’t realize that Berkey isn’t certified, or even tested, to NSF standards. In this article (and in-person), I always encourage folks to check for this testing. Yet again, I didn’t follow my own advice, because I just assumed they were certified. Lesson learned.

While Wirecutter found that Berkey does do an exceptional job filtering lead, they couldn’t verify several other test results or claims made on their website. Casting further doubt, they learned “it would cost well over $1,000,000 to conduct certification testing for all of the substances” that Berkey claims their filters can remove.

Would I Still Recommend It?

Berkey’s lack of transparency with regards to their filtering elements bothers me, as does the fact that they don’t test to NSF standards. All that said, I can’t discount them entirely. Their filters are widely used by the chemically sensitive because users do experience a notable reduction in adverse reactions. So with these testimonials in mind, I can still recommend Berkey… just not as enthusiastically as I would have liked.

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