I love furniture shopping. My wallet takes a hit every time, but like most folks, I keep my furniture for ages, so it doesn’t happen very often. And because it’s such a rare occasion, I get pretty excited when the time eventually comes to replace my old stuff with something new.
I used to pore over catalogs for inspiration and visit all my favorite stores for weeks to explore the possibilities. I mean, if I’m going to lay down a big chunk of change and live with this furniture for several years, it has to be perfect, right? Problem is, my definition of perfect has evolved over the years, as I’ve become more concerned with the health, safety, and ethics of the products I buy.
Unfortunately, I’ve learned that most furniture is manufactured with all sorts of harmful chemicals that I don’t want inside my home. It’s scary to think about how much our indoor air quality can be compromised by the formaldehyde in particle wood, the glue vapors from rugs, the stain-proofing compounds on the couch, flame retardants on the mattress… the list goes on. Suddenly, our sanctuary becomes a toxic minefield.
The tiny particulates that leach from rugs and furniture can rub onto our skin, float into our air, and settle onto the floor, where the kids and pets play. As they do, we inadvertently breathe their fumes, ingest their particles, and absorb them into our skin. They can make us feel drowsy and dizzy, give us headaches and rashes, and irritate our eyes, throat, and lungs. They can also trigger allergies, mess with our hormones, and contribute to a variety of serious health issues over time.
While it would be nearly impossible in today’s world to eliminate chemicals from our homes entirely, there are plenty of ways we can significantly reduce exposure. In this article, we’ll cover easy ways to avoid common toxins in both new and second-hand furniture and find healthier alternatives to choose in their place.
Buying new furniture
As a good rule of thumb, stick to raw, natural materials when buying new furniture and décor, whenever possible.
Usually, when we think of natural furniture materials, we think of wood. So it’s worth noting that while pressed wood is mostly wood, it is typically not a healthy option. This is because makers usually glue it together with a resin made from formaldehyde, which is a dangerous toxin that is known to release into the air over time. If you do choose pressed wood, look for those using formaldehyde-free adhesives, if you can find them.
A healthy alternative to pressed wood is furniture made from solid wood such as birch, teak, walnut, oak, or bamboo (technically a grass). You will also want to make sure the wood is either untreated or that it’s finished with natural stains or paints, in place of solvent-based varnishes or other toxic coatings.
Please note that if you’re chemically sensitive, you may want to avoid pine furniture. While most enjoy its scent, pine does emit natural VOCs that can be quite strong and may trigger symptoms for the acutely sensitive.
Upholstery made from polyester or nylon can cause itching and other unpleasantries. Instead, choose upholstery made from natural textiles such as wool, cotton, and hemp — ideally grown without the use of pesticides and manufactured without harmful toxins. You’ll also want to avoid upholstery that has been treated for stain, moth, or fire resistance.
Also, try to avoid furniture stuffed with synthetic foam, polystyrene, and other materials made with harmful petrochemicals. Natural alternatives include fillings made from cotton, kapok, natural latex (not synthetic latex), and coconut coir
Offgas furniture made from synthetic materials
If you do buy new furniture or décor made from synthetic materials or coated with chemical solvents, be sure to offgas them for several weeks before using them. This is especially important for anything that will live in your bedroom/sleeping areas.
It’s best to leave these products outdoors while they offgas, if that option is available to you. Otherwise, set them in the room you use the least and open the windows. After sealing any vents in the room, turn on a fan to better circulate the air. Then close the door behind you and put a towel under the door to keep the fumes from flowing back into the house.
Common furniture materials to avoid or to offgas prior to use:
- Pressed wood / MDF / chipboard
- Furniture stuffed with foam, polystyrene, synthetic latex, or other synthetic fills
- Upholstery that has been treated for stain, moth, or fire resistance
- Furniture made from or coated with PVC (also known as vinyl)
Choose these healthier furniture materials whenever possible:
- Natural wood or bamboo
- Stainless steel and other metals
- Glass or ceramic
- Pesticide-free wool, cotton, and hemp exteriors
- Fillings made from cotton, kapok, natural latex, or coconut coir
Natural materials can often be more expensive than synthetics, so hardwood furniture or bamboo accessories, for example, may not be in the budget. If that’s the case, second-hand furniture may be a more viable option.
Buying / acquiring second-hand furniture
You typically don’t have to be as concerned with the manufacturing materials when buying second-hand furniture, as you would with new furniture. This is because any chemical vapors would likely have off-gassed before making their way to your home.
However, that doesn’t mean these new-to-you items won’t smell musty, smoky, or otherwise funky. And on the off-chance they don’t smell at all, it’s still a good idea to clean any second-hand items thoroughly before using them.
You’ll likely find that white vinegar and baking soda will clean, disinfect, and deodorize most items well enough. However stubborn smells will need a bit more oomph. Here are a few tips to get the stink out.
Sanding is a great way to remove foul odors from second-hand wood furniture since most (if not all) of the smell will be at the surface. Do be careful if the furniture is musty, stained, or is coated with old paint, as you don’t want to inhale any contaminants. Even if the wood is clean and raw, it’s still not safe to inhale wood dust. (Read about safely removing old paint.)
All sanding should happen outdoors, when possible, and with your windows closed, so the dust can’t get in. The further away you are from the house while sanding, the better. And always wear safety glasses, gloves, and a vapor mask with a P100 rating.
Note that to remove the smell entirely, you may also need to sand the inside spaces of any drawers or cabinets.
Protecting yourself with a vapor mask
It’s always a smart idea to protect yourself with a vapor mask, whether you’re sanding your second-hand furniture or wiping it down with a cleaner for the first time. A mask with a P100 rating is the highest for personal respiratory protection and can block at least 99% of airborne particles. Always be sure your mask fits properly and consider using a vapor cartridge that also blocks gas, if what you’re sanding (or cleaning) is covered in paint or solvents. If you start to smell odors through the mask or it becomes difficult to take a breath, it is time to replace the cartridge and/or the filter.
Deodorizing thrift store smells
There’s a company, called EnviroKlenz, that uses a completely non-toxic, earth mineral technology to neutralize odors, where other products have failed. Their products are specifically formulated for the chemically sensitive and are highly effective.
Use their Everyday Odor Eliminator to spray down musty thrift store furniture and washable fabrics, such as throw pillows, rugs, and upholstery. Their Odor Eliminating Pads are also great for getting the funk out of enclosed spaces, such as dresser drawers and cabinets.
(Greenopedia readers get 15% off EnviroKlenz with code GREENOPEDIA15)
Choosing easier-to-clean materials
When you’re shopping for second-hand furniture and décor, you can minimize the risk of bringing contaminants into your home by choosing materials that are relatively easy to clean.
Examples of easier-to-clean materials:
- Real wood or metal dressers, bookshelves, and desks
- Glass, mirrors
- Lamps (but not the lampshade)
- Real wood dining table and non-upholstered chairs
- Sculptures and non-porous art
- Easily washable fabrics such as curtains, small rugs, and small throw pillows
Consider buying the more difficult-to-clean materials as new, when possible. This is because off-gassing chemicals from new items tends to be far easier than trying to remove bed bugs and long-standing mold and mustiness from older items.
Materials that are more difficult to clean and better to purchase new:
- Mattresses and pillows
- Upholstered items (sofas, armchairs)
- Leather and suede